R 数据统计分析语言

R是用于统计分析、绘图的语言和操作环境。R是属于GNU系统的一个自由、免费、源代码开放的软件,它是一个用于统计计算和统计制图的优秀工具。
R 是统计领域广泛使用的诞生于1980年左右的 S 语言的一个分支。R是S语言的一种实现。S语言是由 AT&T贝尔实验室开发的一种用来进行数据探索、统计分析、作图的解释型语言。最初S语言的实现版本主要是S-PLUS。S-PLUS是一个商业软件,它基于S语言,并由MathSoft公司的统计科学部进一步完善。后来Auckland大学的Robert Gentleman 和 Ross Ihaka 及其他志愿人员开发了一个R系统。R的使用与S-PLUS有很多类似之处,两个软件有一定的兼容性。S-PLUS的使用手册,只要经过不多的修改就能成为 R的使用手册。所以有人说:R,是S-PLUS的一个“克隆”。但是请不要忘了:R is free。
R是一套完整的数据处理、计算和制图软件系统。其功能包括:数据存储和处理系统;数组运算工具(其向量、矩阵运算方面功能尤其强大);完整连贯的统计分析工具;优秀的统计制图功能;简便而强大的编程语言:可操纵数据的输入和输出,可实现分支、循环,用户可自定义功能。
与其说R是一种统计软件,还不如说R是一种数学计算的环境,因为R并不是仅仅提供若干统计程序、使用者只需指定数据库和若干参数便可进行一个统计分析。R的思想是:它可以提供一些集成的统计工具,但更大量的是它提供各种数学计算、统计计算的函数,从而使使用者能灵活机动的进行数据分析,甚至创造出符合需要的新的统计计算方法。
该语言的语法表面上类似 C,但在语义上是函数设计语言的(functional programming language)的变种并且和Lisp 以及 APL有很强的兼容性。特别的是,它允许在“语言上计算”(computing on the language)。这使得它可以把表达式作为函数的输入参数,而这种做法对统计模拟和绘图非常有用。
R是一个免费的自由软件,它有UNIX、LINUX、MacOS和WINDOWS版本,都是可以免费下载和使用的,在那儿可以下载到R的安装程序、各种外挂程序和文档。在R的安装程序中只包含了8个基础模块,其他外在模块可以通过CRAN获得。

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