Scala表示可扩展性语言,是一种混合函数式编程语言。它是由Martin Odersky创建,并于2003年首次发布。

Scala平滑地集成面向对象和函数式语言的特点,并且Scala被编译在Java虚拟机上运行。许多现有的企业依赖于Java的关键业务应用,正在转向Scala以提高他们的开发效率,应用程序的可扩展性和整体可靠性。

下面是Scala应用开发者首选的重要特征列表。

Scala是面向对象:

Scala的每一个值都是一个对象,它是意义上的纯面向对象语言。对象的类型和行为特征将在以后的章节解释说明。类由子类,并作为一种干净替代多重继承,灵活基于mixin组合机制扩展。

Scala是函数:

Scala的每一个函数为一个值,因为每个值是一个对象,因此最终每一个功能都是一个对象意义上的函数。

Scala提供了一个轻量级的语法用来定义匿名函数,支持高阶函数,它允许函数嵌套,并支持curry处理。这些概念将在以后的章节中解释。

Scala是静态类型:

Scala不像其他一些静态类型语言,并不期望提供冗余类型信息。不必在大多数情况下指定类型,当然也不需要重复。

Scala在JVM上运行:

Scala被编译成由Java虚拟机(JVM)执行的Java字节码。这意味着,Scala和Java可在一个共同的运行平台。可以轻松地从Java代码移动到Scala。

Scala编译器编译Scala代码转换为Java字节码,可以通过scala命令执行。Scala的命令类似于java命令,因为它可以执行编译Scala代码。

Scala可以执行Java代码:

Scala可以使用在Java SDK的Scala中的所有类,也是自定义Java类或者Java开源项目。

Scala vs Java:

Scala有一组功能,它不同于Java。其中一些功能是:

  • 所有类型的对象。

  • 类型推测。

  • 嵌套函数。

  • 函数是对象。

  • 领域特定语言(DSL)的支持。

  • 特质。

  • 闭包。

  • 并发支持灵感来自Erlang。

Scala Web框架:

Scala被到处用于企业Web应用程序。可以查看最流行的几个Scala中 Web框架:


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