makefile定义了一系列的规则来指定,哪些文件需要先编译,哪些文件需要后编译,哪些文件需要重新编译,甚至于进行更复杂的功能操作,因为 makefile就像一个Shell脚本一样,其中也可以执行操作系统的命令。

Make工具最主要也是最基本的功能就是通过makefile文件来描述源程序之间的相互关系并自动维护编译工作。而makefile 文件需要按照某种语法进行编写,文件中需要说明如何编译各个源文件并连接生成可执行文件,并要求定义源文件之间的依赖关系。makefile 文件是许多编译器--包括 Windows NT 下的编译器--维护编译信息的常用方法,只是在集成开发环境中,用户通过友好的界面修改 makefile 文件而已。

在 UNIX 系统中,习惯使用 Makefile 作为 makefile 文件。如果要使用其他文件作为 makefile,则可利用类似下面的 make 命令选项指定 makefile 文件。

一个文件,指示程序如何编译和链接程序。makefile文件的默认名称是名副其实的Makefile,但可以指定一个命令行选项的名称。
 

make程序有助于您在开发大型程序跟踪整个程序,其中部分已经改变,只有那些编译自上次编译的程序,它已经改变了部分。


关于编译阶段

 

编译一个小的C程序至少需要一个单一的文件.h文件(如适用)。虽然命令执行此任务只需CC file.c中,有3个步骤,以取得最终的可执行程序,如下所示:

 

编译阶段:所有的C语言代码.c文件中被转换成一个低级语言汇编语言;决策.s文件。

 

汇编阶段:前阶段所作的汇编语言代码,然后转换成目标代码的代码片段,该计算机直接理解。目标代码文件.o 结束。

 

链接阶段:编译程序涉及到链接的对象代码的代码库,其中包含一定的“内置”的功能,如printf的最后阶段。这个阶段产生一个可执行程序,默认情况下,这是名为a.out。


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